Historic weapons are always going to bring up interesting points of conversation, as they appeal to gun enthusiasts, historians, and collectors alike.
An interesting topic of discussion is how and why different weapons evolved, and what features made them noteworthy toward the development of modern firearms. A comparison of the blunderbuss and the musket is just such a conversation worth having.
The basic difference between the blunderbuss and the musket, what in fact defines each of them, is that the blunderbuss was essentially an early shotgun whereas the musket led to the development of the rifle. Each only held one shot which was hand loaded with powder, primer, and ammunition. The musket fired a single lead ball for power and accuracy, and the blunderbuss used a variety of ammo including manufactured lead pellets, bent nails, broken glass, or essentially whatever the user could find to put in it.
Clearly the blunderbuss seems like a more primitive weapon, and devastating to its target without much finesse in choosing a target. The flared muzzle had the intent of helping spread the shot, although modern testing has shown this to be untrue in practical application as it really only shortened the effective barrel length.
An advantage of the flared muzzle was that it allowed for easier and faster reloading times. The musket could (and does, in modern reproductions) outperform the blunderbuss hands down for accuracy, assuming the shooter is experienced with using the weapon. When hunting, the musket provides a clean kill — which is easy to harvest. The exception to accuracy would be at very close range, such as on a ship’s deck, in which the blunderbuss could be devastating with its large spread of ammunition.
The range is an important factor when discussing the musket and blunderbuss, just as today’s modern rifles have a huge advantage over the shotgun in this exact area. Unlike when a shotgun hits everything in its path when fired in the movies, the user still has to take aim. The blunderbuss functions under the same criteria. However, even with the best aim, the blunderbuss ammunition is going to spread out and as such can only provide an accurate shot for about 20-30 meters. The musket, on the other hand, is typically expected to shoot accurately up to about 100 meters. The term “accuracy” here is used generously, as the musket wasn’t nearly as accurate as the rifled barrels introduced later, and would not produce the same groupings expected of modern weaponry.
Obviously, the musket has the clear advantage for hunting in North America, and for ranged warfare. In defense of a ship or small village, once the invaders are inside, the blunderbuss is likely to be a much more effective tool considering the devastation of its one shot at close range before drawing a sword.
~ Firearm Daily